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Why do civilizations tend to go through long historic boom-bust life cycles rather than steadily grow in wisdom and effectiveness?
  A strong genetic.viewpoint:  

A strong environmental.viewpoint:
Civilizations decline as innate popula-  
They decline because growth creates
tion quality declines and criminals rise    
too much complexity that causes mistakes
Class divisions that protect superior  
Civilizations create too many class con-
racial characteristics prolong vitality  
flicts which result in ruinous infighting
To resurge, civilizations must form a  
To resurge, they must absorb new ideas
  newly competent, decriminalized elite    
from outside and pursue a new approach

Sample argument: Man is not disconnected from nature, but rather is subjected to the very same evolutionary selective factors that affect other species in evolutionary sociobiology textbooks. Like other species, human societies accumulate genetic load (worthless, dysfunctional people). Just like the dodo bird became flightless in the absence of ground predators, civilizations create soft niches where the unfit can outbreed the fit. Greedy "captains of industry" also dilute the quality of populations when they decide to bring in lower quality people as their work force. Often cheap labor means people who tend to be more docile and less intelligent. They often become sources of added ethnic and racial friction. In addition, societies that allow niches that reward sociopathic behavior tend to accumulate parasites (criminals). According to certain sources, about 5% of the white population is sociopathic, and this has a significant genetic basis. Certain groups that heavily value deception, whether state-run organizations such as the CIA, or ethnic groups such as Jews, tend to attract and hold unusually rich concentrations of these types of individuals. Civilizations probably disintegrate due to a one-two punch process. The accumulation of genetic load not only decreases the ratio of producers to nonproducers, thereby dragging down overall social efficiency, but it also weakens the resistance of the society to the rise of sociopathic individuals and groups who increasingly plunder these societies from within. Over time the ability of civilizations to adapt, improvise, and courageously handle crises in a rational way disintegrates, so that when they get knocked down they tend to stay down. The history of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire illustrates these points, to the extent that we can see how the leadership of the society became increasingly rotten over time compared to the earlier period of the Roman Republic. Over time, Rome clearly lost much of its early underlying dynamism, innovativeness, and resilience. In fact, one can see this pattern in the long term life cycles of most civilizations. Many fallen civilizations, such as the dynasties of ancient Egypt, had to go through periods of chaos and extensive reorganization prior to experiencing any resurgences. It was common for ancient civilizations located in more temperate zones to resurge only after absorbing new blood from the southward migrations of more fierce, frost zone-sculptured gene pools who formed the new ruling classes.
. . .

Sample argument: Leftists tend to have much more faith than rightists that civilizations can grow indefinitely through the learning process. To them, civilizations are about the strong helping, nurturing, and instructing the weak. In this model, civilizations become strengthened as they go from precedent to precedent, extending learning, the rule of law, and advanced culture over increasingly diverse groups. As civilizations grow, their laws and policies must become more complex. They require more mediation and increasingly sophisticated advice from wise men. Civilizations break down when their wise men make errors in reading the tea leaves of accumulated complexity, much like the way a hedge fund might blow up when its operators fail to read market turns. Also, leftists believe that people get greedy and form artificial class barriers to protect their interests and gum up the works of equal opportunity, mobility based on talent, and free trade. Combating these trends usually means more state police power to enforce fairness, practice equality, and teach men how to be good. This in turn usually implies more taxes to support more military, police, and bureaucracy, which puts more stress on the productive classes. If things reach a breaking point, the leftist dictator is often the answer. A major problem with this approach, however, is that the leftist dictator often undermines property rights and incentives necessary for entrepreneurs to create wealth. Because of this vicious circle, other leftists such as anarcho-libertarians advocate dismantling the state so that people can sort themselves out and rebuild productive communities on a local level. America provides an interesting historical example. When Alexis de Tocqueville visited America in the 1830's, he noted that America had 30 times fewer bureaucrats per capita than his native France and almost no central government by European standards. When they built new communities in the Wilderness, Americans left behind much of the governmental-regulatory baggage of Europe and seemed happier and more productive. However, there are major outcomes of real decentralization that many leftist anarcho-libertarians strongly dislike. When people truly decentralize, they tend to naturally sort their communities out by race and ethnicity, engage in decentralized forms of law enforcement (to include personalized revenge killing and vigilantism), and trade in free market currencies (typically forms of hard money tied to gold and silver). Therefore, leftists usually prefer that the state retain some kind of social re-engineering role. They also like to attribute successful resurgences to the role of egalitarian religious and political ideologies that motivate the masses.

(Last updated 13 Aug 2007 by William B. Fox)

In my environmental vs. genetic article, I provide the following overview of genetic theories regarding why civilizations appear to go through boom and bust cycles:

A basic model for understanding the evolution of genetic differences

For starters it is critical to understand how different geographic environments (or "environmental stresses") sculpture the distributions of traits in human gene pools in different ways, and how these gene pools can degrade over time. Here I am using "environment" to mean a physical environment such as an Ice Age glacier or a sub-saharan jungle. These physical environments tend to select people in different ways. This use of the word "environment" to mean a geological environment that selects for human genes in a certain way is different from the use of the word "environmental" used at the beginning of this article to mean "learned" or "nurtured" behavior.

In his landmark work Why Civilizations Self-Destruct, Dr. Elmer Pendell explained that human gene pools are subject to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, just like other animals. This law states that chemical reactions in the universe tend towards greater randomness. This applies to chemical reactions that sustain life processes inside the human cell and replicate DNA. In other words, in the absence of natural selection, animals that reproduce at a zero population growth rate accumulate dysfunctional mutations and other forms of genetic load over time and suffer gradual and continual degradation in their abilities. Because of this deteriorative pressure, Dr. Pendell believed that animal species only achieve bare survival equilibrium with their geological environment. The Second Law of Thermodynamics prevents populations from developing capabilities in excess of the selective pressures of their physical environment.

Dr. Pendell believed that Ice Age environments imposed vastly more severe demands on human problem solving skills than tropical environments. Humans who lacked the ability to create winter survival technology and who also lacked the ability to delay gratification to prepare in the summer for the winters tended to get killed off at a faster rate. This skewed the innate traits of frost zone gene pools towards technological adaptiveness

In contrast, human groups that remained in temperate zones failed to develop this greater technological adaptiveness The Second Law of Thermodynamics kept them in bare equilibrium survival with the lower requirements of their physical environment.

One might see an analogy with the case of the dodo bird. A group of dodos once flew into a particular tropical-zone island where there no ground predators. As dodos established their home on this island, the ones which remained capable of flight had no particular survival advantage over birds incapable of flight. Over time, mutations which inhibited flight spread through the dodo bird population. By the time European sailors discovered the island, no dodos could fly anymore. Non-flight "genetic load" had saturated the dodo population. Sailors could grab dodos off the ground at will, and they quickly became extinct.

In his landmark book My Awakening, Dr. David Duke provides an excellent summary of the selective differences between frost zone and sub-Saharan African conditions (p. 93):

Prehistoric European-Asian Conditions

Prehistoric Sub-Saharan Africa
complex-sturdy shelter-critical minimal shelter needed for survival
winter extremely harsh climate no winter comfortable climate
warm, well-made clothing critical no clothing required for survival
ability to make/control fire critical fire not required for survival
long periods of resource deprivation resources more abundant
periods of little vegetation, few small animals or birds hunting necessary food gathering less problematic in tropical climes gathering favored
foresight, planning and delayed gratification necessary for survival little seasonal change, immediate gratification favored
in resource scarce, male-provisioned, hunting society, monogamy favored in female provisioned gathering society, polygamy favored
male provisioned society, less sexual and physical aggression favored female provisioned society favors male aggression and sexual drive
promiscuous behavior resulting in fights often leads to death of mate and children death in fights from sexual competition not critical for survival of mates and children

Evolutionary sculpturing of territorial needs and chivalrous instincts:

Dr. Duke provides some extended discussion to explain the evolutionary impact of frost zones that is well worth reading. He notes on page 92:

During most of the last 80,000 years, Europe endured temperatures much colder than today. Modern Europeans emerged about 35,000 years ago and met the crucible of the Wurm glaciation (24,000-10,000 B.C.). Temperatures in Europe and Asia probably averaged around 18 degrees (F) colder than the present.

We see significant technological adaptiveness and comparatively higher IQs among all races or racial subgroups that have had a significant frost zone sculpturing tenure, including eskimos, Japanese, and Mongols. Conversely, we see a relative lack of technological adaptiveness among tropical peoples. Another example besides Negroes are the Piraha Tribe of the Amazon, which has proven completely incapable of learning how to add 1 + 1 despite months of instruction by anthropologists.

Professor J. Philippe Rushton has put together the IQ map provided below that illustrate his article: "Winters Are Good For Your Genes: Lynn Book Finds World Average IQ 90, Declining From North To South."

I would like to interject my personal view that the frost zone evolutionary environment likely sculptured temperamental traits in many other areas besides an aptitude for technological problem solving.

It appears that whites in general, and the Nordic branch of Caucasoids in particular, have lived for a longer evolutionary period than other races under extremely dispersed conditions near Ice Age glaciers in relatively small family or tribal units. The key selective factors involved man vs. nature technological innovation themes. Man vs. man guile or artful sociability was probably not a particularly significant factor. In fact, in some ways it probably helped to err on the side of having a high sense of individual territoriality to prevent competitors from stealing ones food in cold winters.

A vivid anecdotal example of this behavior is described at the beginning of a book called Sissu about the Finnish Winter War against the Soviets. According to a folk tale, which was perhaps apocryphal, a Finn heard that someone wanted to build a cabin several miles away. He pulled out his puukku knife to go kill him because he felt the stranger was invading his territory.

In his essay "The History of Freedom in Antiquity," the eminent British 19th century historian Lord Acton commented on how a strong need for personal freedom is very ancient among white people:

According to a famous saying of the most famous authoress of the continent, Liberty is ancient; and it is Despotism that is new. It has been the pride of recent historians to vindicate the truth of that maxim. The heroic age of Greece confirms it, and it is still more conspicuously true of Teutonic Europe. Wherever we can trace the earlier life of the Aryan nations we discover germs which favouring circumstances and assiduous culture might have developed into free societies. They exhibit some sense of common interest in common concerns, little reverence for external authority, and an imperfect sense of the function and supremacy of the state. Where the division of property and of labour is incomplete, there is little division of classes and of power...

In his book Body Language, Julius Fast talks about how people from Northern Europe stand much further apart from each other in their conversations. Interpersonal interactions among Nordic peoples often strike others as being a bit stuffy and distant. As a rule of thumb, as one heads further south in Europe, people stand increasingly closer to each other in conversation, and have more informal protocols. It is not uncommon for Mediterranean fathers to hug and kiss their own sons and kiss other men, which is unheard of in northern countries. Going further south, Julius Fast points out how Arabs stand very close to each other. To deny an Arab your breath is to insult him.

This very different sense of personal territoriality among population groups has political implications. "Human rights" is probably related to an instinctive requirement to preserve significant personal territory before government.

The origin of the cultural and behavioral trait of chivalry is also an important issue. In "The Passing of the Great Race" Madison Grant wrote (page 168).

The Nordics are, all over the world, a race of soldiers, sailors, adventurers and explorers, but above all, of rulers, organizers, and aristocrats in sharp contrast to the essentially peasant and democratic character of the Alpines. The Nordic race is domineering, individualistic, self reliant, and jealous of their personal freedom both in political and religious systems and as a result they are usually Protestants.

Chivalry and knighthood and their still surviving but greatly impaired counterparts are peculiarly Nordic traits and feudalism, class distinctions and race pride among Europeans are mainly traceable for the most part to the north." (p. 228).

The social status of woman varies largely with race, but here religion plays a part. In the Roman Republic and in Ancient Germany women were held in high esteem. In the Nordic Countries of today, women's rights have received much more recognition than among the southern nations with their tradition of Latin culture." (p. 228).

Chivalrous competition is very common among frost zone mammals such as wolves, reindeer, foxes, bears, and bears. One of the greatest threats to chivalry is parasitism. While parasitism is very common in tropical environments, where animals are close enough for parasites to easily hop from host to host, the high degree of animal dispersion in Arctic environments works in the opposite direction.

In chivalrous competition, males will spar to compete for females. They compete just enough to show dominance, but refrain from destroying the loser by drawing blood. This enables the more fit males to disproportionately reproduce, thereby maintaining the strength of the herd. However, by not killing off the weaker males, the herd retains the greater safety of numbers to ward off packs of predators.

Chivalrous government is an anomaly among most human societies. Most human societies around the planet become very pyramidal is they become very large. The people at the top typically become increasingly vicious to fend off any real or perceived competitors.

We can see how chivalrous instincts must be spread among the general population in order for Western Civilization to become viable. Parliamentary debate depends on the ability of individuals to voice their dissent without getting assassinated. The right to face ones accusers in a trial by jury depends upon not being up against vicious mafia groups who ruthlessly kill off all witnesses. Scientific debate requires the ability to advance a new theory that contradicts leading scientists without losing ones job.

In order for competitive free markets and for free enterprise capitalism to remain viable, both the government and the largest corporations must refrain from using their power to viciously squeeze out competitors and rig the markets.

One reason why America is breaking down, incidentally, is the increase in vicious, anti-chivalrous behavior throughout society. We see this in the case of people who lose their jobs for voicing not politically correct opinions. In contrast, back in the early 19th century chivalrous values once made America once of the most admired countries on earth.

Today America has become despised around the world. The High Priests of War by Michael Collins Piper documents how America's foreign policy has been high-jacked by Jewish neo-cons who viciously smear all domestic critics of their influence. Torture, which is very commonly used by Israelis against Palestinians, is now widely used overseas by Americans.

An interesting indicator of America's depravity involves the sad case of Jewish spokesman and national media darling Dr. Alan Dershowitz. He hardly ennobles either the Harvard University faculty or America's Jewish community. He has artfully tried to reduce public repugnance towards the use of torture and has viciously attacked his colleague Dr. Stephen Walt, former Dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, for the report co-authored with Dr. John Mearsheimer of the University of Chicago that criticizes the Jewish Lobby's role in American foreign policy.

Critics of Jews have historically viewed them as an an alien racial group instinctively incapable of acting like chivalrous gentlemen. For over two thousand years their evolutionary history has been focused on man vs. man competition where they have been outsiders in highly urbanized environments forced to live by their wits. Critics such as Henry Ford in his International Jew series claim that Jews as a group are more likely to produce a disproportionate number of people who are prone to engage in covert, deceitful, vicious, criminal, Mafia-like behavior. In business they have a greater tendency to act as vicious monopolists. In their view, Jews tend to be incompatible with chivalrous republican government and principled free enterprise competition.

This has some similarities to Ralph Townsend's analysis in Ways That Are Dark about the Chinese (offered by America First Books). To him, it is no accident that the Chinese are often referred to as "The Jews of the East." For well over two thousand years the Chinese have endured conditions of extreme deprivation and overcrowding, in which Darwinian survival depended heavily on artful man vs. man diplomacy, to put it politely. In addition to their considerable business acumen, Townsend claims that the Chinese have an amazing capacity to ingratiate themselves with Americans. They can quote high-minded platitudes of Confucius one moment and then just as easily break their word with Westerners the next. According to Townsend, writing in 1933, the Chinese language has no real equivalent of the word "lie" that carries with it any sense of the moral repugnance that accompanies its usage in the West.

Townsend noted that the Japanese, who have absorbed some Caucasoid genes from the Ainu, have a very different cultural personality that is much closer to Western concepts of personal honor. Townsend observed an interesting paradox that begins with the fact that initially Americans tend to like the Chinese more than the Japanese. The Chinese seem much more affable and gregarious, whereas the Japanese appear more reserved. However, Townsend claimed that after Americans have had enough dealings with both the Chinese and Japanese to begin to understand each group, most Americans start to prefer the Japanese. They discover that they have more in common with the Japanese on the honor issue, and that is more important to them in the long run.

In regard to the comparing the Chinese with Jews, if one compares Ways That Are Dark with Jewish Supremacism by Dr. David Duke, one can see that the Chinese are qualitatively very different from Jewish supremacists in many important ways. Among other things, the Chinese have had their own land base and self-contained civilization for thousands of years. Their religious institutions make it possible for them to find contentment within their own borders without defining themselves relative to other peoples or making it a divine mission to perpetually infiltrate and exert control over other societies under false pretenses.

The origins of advanced civilizations

According to Dr. Elmer Pendell in Why Civilizations Self-Destruct, advanced civilizations began when peoples of the north headed southwards to warmer lands where survival was much easier. Dr. Pendell defined civilization as the sum total of problem-solving improvements made by people over time. Hence, the peoples of the north had excess genetic capacity in terms of intelligence and robustness that could now be invested towards the continuous problem solving processes required to create advanced civilizations.

However, once in the warmer lands, the peoples of the north were no longer subjected to savage sculpturing factors. Their offspring tended to decline over time in average fitness much like the dodo bird. In addition, the civilizations they created developed niches that allowed people of low ability to reproduce at a faster rate than people of higher ability.

Paradoxically, as the material improvements and monuments of civilizations accumulated over time, giving the external appearance of an increasingly advanced civilization, the underlying genetic quality was steadily deteriorating. Eventually, the ratio of nonproducers to producers increased to the point that bygone civilizations began to stagnate. At this tipping point, they began to lose traction in their ability to anticipate and solve problems. Eventually they became so overwhelmed by their accumulating problems that they went into decline.

At this point let me interject that while I agree with Pendell that dysgenic decay is an important long term underlying factor, I see evidence that many civilizations seem to fall apart well before their underlying gene pools are totally depleted due to the accumulation of genetic load.

I think that there are two extremely important addition reasons to help explain the accelerated decline of various civilizations. One reason is that over time civilizations tend to become more centralized and tyrannical, which degrades their ability to engage in rational innovation and problem-solving on a grass roots level. In cover this process in some depth in my centralization vs. decentralization discussion. Please note my libertarian analysis regarding how centralized government tends to turn into ponzi government, which in turn tends to turn into evil government.

In addition, as societies become more centralized and individuals become less self-sufficient, people with increasingly criminal traits, parasitic modus operandi, and other mental health problems tend to rise to the top and set the tone of society. This also severely degrades the ability of a society to engage in rational grass roots problem solving and innovation. I discuss the "criminal personality" and parasitism in depth in my mutualism vs. parasitism discussion.

There is definitely an unvirtuous circle involved here in which all of these factors viciously feed on each other. Dysgenic decay encourages increasing centralization, because a declining level of overall competence in the overall population makes its more likely that "the masses" will become increasingly less self-sufficient as individual adults and instead assume an increasingly child-like level of dependency on their rulers. They will simultaneously become less capable of heading off various forms of tyranny. Similarly, as a population becomes weaker in terms of its innate character and intelligence, it becomes less capable of resisting criminal exploitation.

Dr. Edward Wilson and Sir Arthur Keith add to Dr. Pendell's basic model

In his book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, Dr. Edward Wilson explains how the selection of certain genetic traits can only be explained in terms of natural selection applied on a group level as opposed to an individual level.

One example includes selection for altruism. This is a trait that motivates an individual to risk his own life or to diminish his own resources for the greater good of his group.

We might imagine the following as an example of altruistic sacrifice. A woman has several children who are in danger of getting mauled by a bear. The mother starts fighting the bear to give her children time to flee, and gets mauled to death. From an evolutionary viewpoint, although her genes are now lost, there is still a net gain of the survival of her children.

As another example, imagine a group of young men who fight to the death to defend their tribe against invaders who might genocide or enslave their people. Their sacrifice is cost effective if it prevents the destruction of the remainder of their gene pool.

In contrast, imagine a group where parents tend to feel no inclination to risk themselves to save their children, or where young men feel no inclination to fight to defend their tribe against attack, enslavement, and possibly even extermination. In this case, this group without any altruistic instincts is more likely to become extinct than one that has altruistic traits. In a world where tribes compete for living space, the group without altruism cannot effectively band together to defend its genetic interests.

Since altruism has a genetic basis, it is vitally important that a people with strong altruistic tendencies focus this behavior first and foremost towards the reproduction of their own genetic type. In this way the altruistic genes survive.

If on the other hand a group carrying a high degree of innate altruism can be tricked into adopting and nurturing alien children, or pursuing economic policies that benefit alien interests before their own kind, then the altruistic group is in fact now suffering from parasitism. An alien group is now enhancing its own genetic fitness at the expense of the altruistic group, in essence "using up" the first group's altruism to promote the survival of alien genes. If this parasitic relationship continues for too long, the altruistic group will become extinct, and altruistic behaviors will die with them.

Sir Arthur Keith's Evolutionary Breeding Unit concept

The late British anthropologist Sir Arthur Keith argued that tribal separation in what he called "Evolutionary Breeding Units" has been very important in the human evolutionary process. Tribal separation allowed beneficial mutations to take hold. Furthermore, tribal separation enabled groups with superior genes to expand at the expense of failed groups. Among other things, it enabled a tribe with altruistic traits to avoid being parasitically used up by a group that lacks these traits. It also rewarded successful groups on a genetic level, analogous to the way successful entrepreneurs must be able to retain earnings in their companies to grow in a competitive free enterprise capitalist system.

Sir Arthur Keith described how competition takes place not only between tribes, but also to promote eugenic as opposed to dysgenic mating on an individualized basis within a tribe. When applied to mating, "eugenic" means mating that promotes offspring who are more fit. "Dysgenic" means mating that produces less fit offspring. As mentioned earlier, humans tend to naturally engage in eugenic practices when they try to find a marital partner who is their equal or better.

One cannot help but wonder if a combination of tribal competition, combined with internal eugenic mating selection inside competing evolutionary breeding units, accounted for the "cranial explosion" that occurred among human ancestors in last three million years. Dr. Edward Wilson's classic work Sociobiology: the New Synthesis provides a vivid example with a graph that plots brain volume (y-axis) against millions of years before present on the x-axis. (Figure 27-1, redrawn from Pilbeam, 1972).

The graph starts with Ramaphithecus punjabicus who had an estimated 310 cc brain volume roughly 14 million years ago. A hypothetical curve showing the brain volume of our ancestors shows a steady gradual rise of less than 20 degrees for the next eleven million years until we get to Australopithecus africanus, with about a 460 cc capacity roughly 3 million years before present. From here the cranial capacity curve sharply accelerates. We see Australopithecus habilis at 600 cc about 2 million years ago, Homo erectus at 1,000 cc about 1 million years ago, and Homo sapiens at around 1,400 cc at present. The curve reaching Homo sapiens is at about a 70 degree upward climb.

After Homo Sapiens depicted on the graph around our present time, we see the line on the chart fall off from a 70 degree climb to a 45 degree climb. Considering the way America and other Western countries are being dumbed down as a consequence of out of control Third World immigration and the habit of the most fit white women having the least children, I think that it would be more accurate to show a negative angle. This would be consistent with Dr. Pendell's observation that civilization tends to create niches that support the reproduction of the less fit at the expense of more productive people, and hence tends to reverse evolution.

Commentary regarding the environmental view:

Vastly more people have been killed by communist regimes out to ruthlessly save the world by killing off class enemies than by right wing regimes seeking to protect the tribal integrity of their own people. For example, if we add up the forty million (plus) people liquidated by Stalin with over twice that many killed by Mao Tse Tung, we are well into the hundred twenty million (plus) range. The German Nazis and Italian fascists barely accomplished a small fraction of all of this.

Dr. Thomas DiLorenzo informs us that: "According to Mark Neely, author of Fate of Liberty, there were more than 13,000 arrests of Northern civilians during the war after Lincoln had (unconstitutionally) suspended the writ of habeas corpus, including dozens, if not hundreds, of newspaper editors and owners who were critical of the Lincoln administration." If you consider that the War of Southern Independence with its 640,000 war deaths may have been avoidable if Lincoln had never been elected, or if he had kept his promise to Southern leaders not to reinforce Fort Sumer, then perhaps we can chalk one more up to the leftists by normal American standards with our very own American Lenin.

One of the explanations for this extra-murderous behavior among leftists is that at least right wingers have some respect for the tribal and indigenous cultural heritage of various peoples, since they seek to preserve their own, whereas under extreme forms of Marxism all human beings are treated as simply equally interchangeable and expendable commodities in a completely godless world. If you can't propagandize 'em, then shoot 'em.

What is particularly insidious is that once civilizations go into decline, they are often taken over by authoritarian leftists whose policies only add fuel to the fire. While the very same society is running low on intelligent people capable of engaging in disciplined entrepreneurial calculation, the leftist leaders incite class resentment against such people and expropriate their property. Even though the society may be in decline in large part because of the incompetent and heavy handed methods of government, leftist dictators will typically step in and impose even more controls, more centralization, and other forms of dysfunctional economic distortion.

In one sense, the rise of ruthless leftists is really just a regression towards a more primitive form of society. In a primitive tribe, often a strong man will claw his way to the top of a power pyramid so that he controls most of the rewards. He then acts like a redistributor chief, handing out rewards to buy off the loyalty of as many of his subjects as he can. At the same time he flexes his muscles as part of his "bigmanship" to ruthlessly fend off or scapegoat potential rivals.

Leftists basically act like alpha males in gorilla troupes. They expropriate all the desirable resources and place them under their control, then pass them out to followers to buy loyalty, and simultaneously viciously marginalize or kill off any potentially rivals.


Return to question 26

Proceed to commentary for question 27


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